Inadequate water supply has threatened the survival of many people globally. To resolve this worldwide crisis, innovative scientists have developed the process of reverse osmosis to provide an alternative supply of clean water from oceans and seas.
Reverse osmosis (RO) water filtration systems usually involve the use of technology that is capable of drawing out dissolved solids and other contaminants from untreated water (e.g. seawater, brackish water, etc.), thereby producing clean and potable water. RO filtration systems have found a range of applications not only in homes, but in numerous industries like manufacturing and aquaculture.
To understand reverse osmosis, you have to know the definition of osmosis first. Osmosis happens when water molecules are filtered away from larger molecules in a solution through a semipermeable membrane, and moved to a solution with higher concentration to achieve equilibrium. Water is purified via RO when enough pressure is applied on the concentrated side of the solution, reversing the osmosis process.
Treatment tanks have saltwater on one side and pure water on the other for RO treatment. Separated by a semi-permeable membrane, a lot of pressure is put on the saltwater side to reverse or counteract the natural osmotic process and move saltwater through the membrane. This will result in a higher concentration of saltwater on the other side, and a lower concentration of clean water on the other.
Today, most states utilize RO as their water purification system to supply adequate clean and even potable water in locations surrounded mainly by saltwater.