Reverse osmosis is a popular method used to filter water of any impurities. The way that reverse osmosis works is by forcing water through specialized membrane housing, thus filtering heavier solutes and contaminants from passing through the other side of the membrane. The pressure of the water passing through the membrane housing makes it so that only water is able to pass through. Dissolved inorganic solids, such as sodium, sand, gravel, silt, and other impurities are blocked from passing through the specially designed membrane housing. Instead, they are trapped within the housing, ensuring that the water that passes through is free of any of the contaminants.
The entire reverse osmosis process is contained within the membrane housing, which is a horizontal, tube-shaped housing. After the water goes through the membrane, it is separated into two streams: one is the stream of clean, filtered water; and the other is the stream that contains the impurities that were filtered out. The impure water, also referred to as brine, goes down the drain line, which connects to a special clamp on the undersink of the drain to collect the sifted solutes.
The clean, filtered water, oftentimes referred to as the permeate, passes through another stream that goes through a check valve. The purpose of the check valve is to keep pressure on the system from pushing water back into the membrane canister when water has become permeate.